Rolsanna R. Ramos, B.S.FT, RN, PhD and Catherine C. Calidgid, RN
Philippine Orthopedic Center

Background of the Study

There is a growing recognition of the significance of establishing a culture of patient safety, as patient safety is being acknowledged as a critical component to the quality of health care (Hellings, Schrooten, Klazinga, & Vleugels, Challenging patient safety culture: survey results, 2007; Smits, Wagner, Spreeuwenberg, van der Wal, & Groenewegen, 2009; Saturno, Da Silva Gama, de Oliveira-Sousa, Fonseca, & P, 2008). Patient safety culture (PSC) is being used by organizations to determine targets for interventions, fulfill regulatory requirements, and conduct benchmarking (Sorra, Gray, & Streagle, AHRQ Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture: User’s Guide. (Prepared by Westat, under Contract No. HHSA290201300003C). AHRQ Publication No. 15-0049-EF (Replaces 04-0041), 2016). Investigation on PSC was needed to raise awareness about the role of culture in promoting a safer environment. Nurses play a crucial role in maintaining and promoting patient safety due to the nature of their work.


The objective of the study was to assess the current status of PSC among nurses at the Philippine Orthopedic Center (POC).


A quantitative, descriptive study was conducted to assess the culture of patient safety at POC from the perspectives of nurses at one point in time. The research study was carried out from June-December 2017. An adapted survey tool, Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (HSOPSC) that was sponsored by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) was used after securing permission from the copyright holder.  PSC was assessed among 292 registered nurses working at POC. Descriptive statistics like frequency, mean, standard deviation, and percentage were employed to express demographic data and composites/dimensions of safety culture. This study was undertaken upon approval from the POC Nursing Service Research Committee (POCNSRC) and POC Ethics Review Board (POCERB).


Majority of the respondents were from the clinical nursing unit, female, single, baccalaureate degree holders, Nurse I, with the age group of 25-29 years old, have worked for less than a year in their present working units, have been employed in the hospital for a year but not more than five years, were already practicing their profession for 1-5 years and involved in direct patient interaction. Of the 12 composites evaluated by the nurses, Teamwork within units (91.50%) was the highest positively rated dimension followed by Organizational Learning – Continuous Improvement (86.89 %) while Nonpunitive Response to Error (17.65%) was the least positively rated dimension. Most (71.48%) of the respondents had not reported any event within the past 12 months of their duty. Majority (45%) of the nurses reported that the overall patient safety grade of the hospital was very good and no one thought that it was failing. In general, nurses feel positively towards PSC within their organization.